Riveting machinery is a type of fastener that uses heat and pressure to fuse two pieces of material together, resulting in a permanent bond. This type of fastener is often used in the automotive industry, aerospace industries, and other industrial fields where strength and durability are critical.

There are several different types of riveting machines available on the market. Some of them are powered by electric motors, while others use hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders. The differences between these machines also vary in terms of speed, power, and accuracy. Before choosing a riveting machine, manufacturers should consider their assembly process objectives and constraints. They should also look for a machine that can accommodate the type of rivet that is being used.

The first step in selecting the right riveting machine is to determine how much human guidance it will need. Manual feed riveting machines require an operator to control the movement of the ram using a foot pedal or hand lever. This enables the operator to set the initial setting force for the rivet. Automatic feed riveting machines, on the other hand, can perform this action in a self-regulating manner.

Depending on the specific application, the next step is to choose whether the riveting machine will use orbital or impact forming. Orbital riveting machines have a spinning forming tool that, when gradually lowered, shapes the tip of the rivet to create a rounded finish. This type of riveting machine is ideal for applications that involve sensitive electronic or electrical components. However, it requires a longer cycle time than impact forming machines.

Once the initial setup is complete, the operator can begin to run a rivet through the hole in the workpiece with the help of a special tool called a bucking bar. The bucking bar applies a compressive force to the rivet, which deforms its tail end and locks it into place. This is how a lap joint is created.

For more accurate lap joints, manufacturers can opt for a riveting machine that uses an impact forming method. In this type of machine, an angularly mounted impact tool presses against the top surface of the workpiece to form the shape of the rivet. This machine is ideal for a wide range of applications, including the manufacture of electrical and medical equipment.

Whether an operator is using an orbital or impact forming machine, the final stage of a lap joint is to use the rivet gun to drive the fastener into the lap joint. Once the rivet is in the hole, the operator can pull the trigger of the gun to release pressurized air. This air will cause the piston and rivet set to force the mandrel through the tail end of the rivet, which then fuses the two materials together.

For more efficient riveting, some manufacturers have automated the process by implementing SPR (selective penetration riveting) systems. These machines have dedicated sensors that monitor the riveting process, generating a force-displacement curve that is compared with a trained reference curve. If the process fits within a predetermined tolerance, the riveting is considered to be successful. If not, the machine may flag the rivet for attention or even halt the process altogether.